27 January, 2014

Rapid test for Norovirus

1) Norovirus( Electron-microscopic image, x 21,820)

Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc. - Microscopy and Science Education Web Site

2) Rapid test for Norovirus;

3) Rapid test for Norovirus;

Norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis and many outbreaks  in nursery, 

kindergarden, school, hospital and among families.

Previously names: Norwalk-like viruses, Caliciviruses, and Small round
-----------------------structured viruses.

1) Symptoms:  --  acute-onset nausea, vomiting; watery, non-bloody diarrhea 

---------------------with abdominal cramps, and fever.
2) Transmission: --oral-faecal route or a droplet route from vomitus.
----------------------Norovirus can survive freezing and heating to 60°C.
3) Incubation period: 12~36 hours
4) Disinfections: --1% sodium hypochlorite( Cl Na O) 

5) Rapid test: ------Enzyme-linked Immuno-sorbent Assay.
                            For more infomations, ask to ------- 
ーーーーーーD Denka Seiken Co, Ltd.

----------------------------                  --RT-PCR
--------------------      ---+-------- ------ total
                          rapid test---- +----53--------1---------54
------------                          --- - ----19-------90-------109
----------                          ------------------------------------------
-----                          --------total---72-------91-------163

Any questions:   write to  Keiji Hagiwara,    

Intrafamilial transmission of Norovirus

Norovirus is one of the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis(vomiting and 
diarrhea) in childhood. If one child is suffered gastroenteritis due to this virus. 
Usually, brother or sister and their parents also are suffered, because no immunity 
to Norovirus.

A case of  intrafamilial transmission of Norovirus
April 23. 10-year-old male started abdominal pain and vomiting at school
-----------lunch time, following watery diarrhea.

April 25.  In the morning, Mother(45 y) and father (50 y) developed abdominal 
----------- cramp,vomiting and diarrhea.
-----------In the night, 15-year-old brother also started the same symptoms.

1) Rapid test of feces indicate Norovirus infection:

2) Electron-microscopic image of Norovirus:

3) Norovirus is still alive in the refrigerator freezer.
4) Disinfectants such as alcohol and Benzalkonium chloride( also known as  

---- alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride and ADBAC) is no effect.
---- Sodium hypochlorite, used for cleaning the baby's bottle, is effective.

Any questions: write to Keiji Hagiwara, MD
---------------------------------Kami-Ube Pediatric Clinic,
---------------------------------Ube 755-0097, Japan