24 February, 2011

Rapid diagnostic test for influenza

Rapid tests for influenza virus infection: 
upper: influenza A
lower: influenza B
In Japan, rapid tests for influenza virus infection are routinely used by Physicians.
10 more products are marketing.

The sensitivities, when compared with viral culture, or reverse transcription 

polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)are approximately 85~98 %. 
The specificities are approximately 90~99%.
Both A and B are week positive: false results.

There are several sites to obtain the samples:
---------- 1) Nasopharyngeal swab: the best
---------- 2) Throat swab
---------- 3) Nasal swab
------------ New England Journal of Medicine -------

upper: classical cotton swab
middle: thin cotton swab 
lower: Tip flocked with Nylon fiber

Any questions: write to
--------------------Keiji Hagiwara, MD 
--------------------Kami-Ube Pediatric Clinic, Ube 755-0097, Japan.

22 February, 2011

Relenza: a inhalation drug for Flu

Zanamivir ( Relenza, GlaxoSmithKlineis a oral inhalation drugs, used in the treatment 
and prophylaxis of influenza caused by influenza A virus and influenza B virus. 

The recommended dose of RELENZA in adults and pediatric patients
aged 7 years and older is 10 mg twice daily (approximately 12 hours apart) for 5 days.
• Two doses should be taken on the first day of treatment
    whenever possible provided there is at least 2 hours between doses.
• On subsequent days, doses should be about 12 hours apart
    (e.g., morning and evening) at approximately the same time each day.

12-year-old boy, influenza A infection
10-year-old girl, influenza B infection

Any questions;   Keiji Hagiwara, 
                           Kami-Ube Pediatric Clinic, Ube 755-0097, Japan.

12 February, 2011

Bird Flu (Avian influenza) in Tokiwa park

View Larger Map
February 9th. a black swan was found in dead at Tokiwa lake. The tests showed influenza 
A, H5 subtype, suggesting Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus.
From 9th to 11th, except for Pelicans, 322 swans and 14 ducks have been slaughtered 
for preventing further spreads of Flu.  The swans came from Rotterdam in 1957---------
----- A sad ending.
Swans in Tokiwa park, Ube city
white swan
Black swans
-------------------- Keiji Hagiwara,   keijihagiwara@gmail.com 

09 February, 2011

Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis
i) agent: Japanese encephalitis virus( RNA virus).
ii) transmission: the bite of an infected mosquito, primarily Culex species. 
mosquito; carrier of Japanese encephalitis virus(Culex tritaeniorhynchus)
---------- Department of Medical Entomology, NIID, Japan

iii) Disease: a few than 1% of human develop the encephalitis. Most peoples
------ are symptom-free.  Case–fatality ratio is around 20%–30%. 
------ Among survivors, 30%–50% may have significant neurological sequelae.

iv) Incidence of Japanese encephalitis:
----- In Japan, fewer than 10 patients/ year.
----- This virus is the most common cause of encephalitis in Asia, 
----- occurring throughout most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific. 
----- The virus has not been locally transmitted in Africa, Europe, or USA.

------ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -------

v) prevention:  If you work or travel rural area during summer or rainy seasons,
----------- where mosquito bites are there ,
-----------Japanese encephalitis vaccine( 3 times; 0, 1~4 weeks, 1 year) should
----------- be administered.
Inactivated Vero Cell Culture-Derived JE Vaccine

Any questions;  
       Keiji Hagiwara, MD   keijihagiwara@gmail.com